However, studies show that one or more of these ancient populations is more directly ancestral to dogs than are modern wolves, and conceivably these were more prone to domestication by the first humans to invade Eurasia. , A 2018 study of mDNA sequences shows that the pre-Neolithic dogs of Europe all fell under haplogroup C. The Neolithic and Post-Neolithic dogs from Southeastern Europe that are associated with farmers fell under haplogroup D. In Western and Northern Europe, haplogroup D became diluted into the native dog population. However, these dogs can become intolerant of small children and can be protective of their relationship with their owner.  In 2017, evolutionary biologists reviewed all of the evidence available on dog divergence and supported the specimens from the Altai mountains as being those of dogs from a lineage that is now extinct, and that was derived from a population of small wolves that is also now extinct. Domestication has influenced the entire earth. The specimens were genetically related to the 14,000 YBP Bonn-Oberkassel dog from Germany and other early dogs from western and central Europe which all fall within the domestic dog clade C haplotype, indicating that these were all derived from a common ancestor. He concluded that canine domestication may have first occurred 27,000 to 40,000 years ago. There exist today dogs that live with their human families but are unsocialized and will threaten strangers defensively and aggressively no differently than a wild wolf. The dogs belonging to this haplogroup were once widely distributed in southern China, then dispersed through Southeast Asia into New Guinea and Oceania, but were replaced in China 2,000 YBP by dogs of other lineages. rodents like rats and mice and rabbits? Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, Serpell J, Duffy D. Dog Breeds and Their Behavior. , Animal domestication is a coevolutionary process in which a population responds to selective pressure while adapting to a novel niche that included another species with evolving behaviors. The Greenland dog shows 3.5% Taimyr wolf ancestry, which indicates admixture between the Taimyr wolf population and the ancestral dog population of these four high-latitude breeds.  One such notable wolf was Romeo, a gentle black wolf that formed relationships with the people and dogs of Juneau, Alaska.  In 2016, a study found that there were only 11 fixed genes that showed variation between wolves and dogs. During the ecological upheaval associated with the close of the Late Pleistocene, one type of wolf population rose to become today's apex predator and another joined with humans to become an apex consumer.. Clutton-Brock, J. This trait is influenced by those genes which act in the neural crest, which led to the phenotypes observed in modern dogs. , In 2015, a study found that when dogs and their owners interact, extended eye contact (mutual gaze) increases oxytocin levels in both the dog and its owner. This suggests that the genetic divergence of European and East Asian dogs could be based on admixture with different sub-populations of wolves. Ikeya, K. 1994. The second was artificial selection based on tamability. The grey wolf most likely followed the commensal pathway to domestication. There have been major advances in understanding the genes that gave rise to the phenotypic traits of dogs. horses and cats and dogs?.  The eastern Eurasian dogs then dispersed westward alongside humans, reaching western Europe 6,400–14,000 YBP where they partially replaced the western paleolithic dogs. Standard pet microchips are typically 11–13 mm long (approximately 1 ⁄ 2 inch) and 2 mm in diameter. , The domestication of animals and plants was triggered by the climatic and environmental changes that occurred after the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum around 21,000 YBP and which continue to this present day. However, some ancestors adopted the pastoralist wolves' lifestyle as herd followers and herders of reindeer, horses, and other hoofed animals. 1919.  Domestication traits are generally fixed within all domesticates and were selected during the initial episode of domestication, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations. An archaeological history of Japan: 10,000 B.C. 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